vendredi 18 septembre 2020


 love.43.gifCAUSE AND EFFECT:

Because of
+      Noun
Due to
Owing to  
Thanks to
(in positive situations)

Subject + Verb


  • The police arrested him because he broke into a bank.
  • The police arrested him since he broke into a bank.
  • She can't read the letter as she is illiterate.
  • He can't run fast for he is too fat.
  • Owing to his intelligence, he managed to solve the problem.
  • Due to the bad weather, they didn't go for a picnic.
  • Because of the heavy rain, they stayed in the hotel.

You can also express cause and effect as follows:
  • The cause of …is…
  • …is caused by / is due to …
  • Thanks to ...


The cause of
global warming
is pollution.
Global warming
is caused by
is due to

Thanks to
Thanks to
his hard work ,
his intelligence
he passed the exam.
he managed to find the solution to that math problem.

fleche-gif-047.gifOwing to and due to are used interchangeably by native speakers although some state that there is a difference.
a. Due to:
If you can use caused by then you can also use due to:
"The cancellation of the flight was due to (caused by) heavy rain."
b. Owing to:
If you can use because of then you should use owing to rather than due to:
"The flight was cancelled owing to (because of) heavy fog."
  • Consequently
  • Therefore
  • As a consequence
  • As a result
  • For this reason
  • Thus
  • Because of this
  • Hence
  • So
  • John made a rude comment, so Elise hit him.
  • She failed her exams and was consequently unable to start her studies at college.
  • There is still much to discuss. We shall, therefore, return to this item at our next meeting.
  • We suspect they are trying to hide something, hence the need for an independent inquiry.
  • Yesterday there was a gaz explosion. Because of this, several homes burned down.

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