Pages

jeudi 17 janvier 2019

UNIT IV: LISTENING



 


Listening Script:

Part One

Sophia: Good morning Mr Benyoussef and thank you for giving me the opportunity to talk with you about the effects of pollution on human health.

Dr. Benyoussef: Well, you don't need to thank since pollution is a respnsibility of all of us.

Sophia: So when our environment is polluted, the standard of living comes down. As an expert in ecology, can you tell me, Mr Benyoussef, how the different pollutants affect people?

Dr. Benyoussef:The effect of pollutants can go from discomfort to death. To measure them, there are tests which are made in a short or long term. The pollutant particles may have immediate effects causing irritation on the breathing system, chronic bronchitis, nausea and chronic headaches, and sometimes they even cause hospitalisation.

Sophia: So, pollutants cause many diseases and affect different parts of the body?

Dr. Benyoussef: Surely, and they leave too many risky effects that people should be aware of.


Part Two

Sophia: Now, could you tell me which age groups are more affected?

Dr. Benyoussef: Well, not every one is affected by pollutants in the same way. A perfectly healthy person will only feel their effects after a long time. However, someone who is not healthy will have lower defence against these particles. As for children, old people and pregnant women, they have greater probability of being affected by atmospheric polllution.

Sophia: One more question. Could you, please, explain these differences?

Dr. Benyoussef: OK. These differences are easily explained. Someone who is not healthy doesn't have enough immunity to defend oneself from external aggressions. Children and old people, whose defences are weaker, are immediately affected by pollution. For example, children who live in a polluted urban environment are more likely to suffer from morning and night cough than those who live in a rural one.

Sophia: Last question, Dr Benyoussef. What do you think should be done to fight this hazardous phenomenon?

Dr. Benyoussef: Well, everybody should act and everyone should be sensitised to the danger of poisoning the environment, from individual to activist groups and from governments to international associations and organisations. There should be a general agreement.

Sophia: Thank you Dr Benyoussef.







Vocabulary:

 Standard: /ˈstæn.dəda level of quality.


 Examples:


 This piece of work is below standard/is not up to standard.

 Not everyone judges success by the same standards - some people think happiness is more important than money.

 pollutant /pəˈluː.tənt/ a substance that pollutes.

 Examples:


 Sulphur dioxide is one of several pollutants that are released into the atmosphere by coal-fired power stations.

 The chemical factories in the park produced serious pollutants that threatened the villagers' health and damaged their farmland.

 irritation/ˌɪr.ɪˈteɪ.ʃəna painful or sore feeling in a part of the body.

 Examples:


 It is an antiseptic cream suitable for minor skin irritations.

 The strap had rubbed against his skin and caused irritation.

Black nylon belt, strap isolated on white background

Strap


 bronchitis/brɒŋˈkaɪ.tɪsan illness in which the bronchial tubes become infected and swollen, resulting in coughing and difficulty in breathing.

 Examples:
 I have had a very severe attack of bronchitis.

 The examination showed that death was due to acute bronchitis and its secondary effects.




nausea:/ˈnɔː.zi.əthe feeling that you are going to vomit.

 Examples:


Signs of the illness include fever, nausea, and vomiting.

 Her pain increased accompanied by worsening nausea and vomiting.

chronic:/ˈkrɒn.ɪk (especially of a disease or something bad) continuing for a long time.

 Examples:


She suffers from chronic pain in her knees.

 Mr. George is resigning because of chronic heart disease.

immunity:/ɪˈmjuː.nə.tɪ a situation in which you are protected against disease or from legal action.

 Examples:


 The vaccination gives you immunity against the disease for up to six months.

 He was granted immunity from prosecution because he confessed the names of the other spies.


cough:/ kɒf  to force air out of your lungs through your throat with a short, loud sound.

 Examples:


The smoke made me cough.

I coughed all night long.

hazardous:/ ˈhæz.ə.dəs  dangerous, risky.

 Examples:


He had a hazardous journey last year.

 Due to war, persecution, or hazardous flights, many refugees have experienced traumatic events with major losses, including loss of community and culture.

phenomenon:/ fəˈnɒm.ɪ.nən/ plural: phenomena something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesting.
 Examples:


Gravity is a natural phenomenon.

 There's evidence to suggest that child abuse is not just a recent phenomenon.
sensitize= (UK usually) sensitise :/ ˈsen.sɪ.taɪz/ to make someone sensitive to something.
 Examples:


 It seems very likely that air pollutants are sensitizing people so that they become allergic to pollen.

everyone should be sensitised to the danger of poisoning the environment.


 Listening baby
 Pregnant 


Industrial smoke
 Atmospheric pollution= Air pollution


Aerial night view of the Frankfurt city from above. 
Urban area

Landschaft mit Weiden in Irland 
Rural area

https://t4.ftcdn.net/jpg/00/95/86/35/240_F_95863573_Fw0YAoYYjnGmvKViTfZJEIK5sr3rFpTK.jpg 
Cough


The suffix -itis= means "inflammation".


urethritis: /ˌjʊərəˈθraɪtɪs/ التهاب الاحليل

otitis: /əʊˈtaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الأذن
cecitis=caecitis / si:ˈsaɪt-əs/ , typhlitis: / tif-ˈlaɪt-əs/   التهاب الأعور

enteritis: /ˌen.təˈraɪ.təs/ التهاب  الأمعاء

rhinitis: /raɪˈnaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الأنف

pericarditis: /ˌper.ɪ.kɑːdˈaɪ.tɪs/  
التهاب التأمور=الغشاء المحيط بالقلب

mastitis: /mæsˈtaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الثدي

blepharitis: /blef-ə-ˈraɪt-əs/ التهاب الجفن

dermatitis: /ˌdɜː.məˈtaɪ.təs/ التهاب الجلد

sinusitis/ˌsaɪ.nəˈsaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الجيب أو الجيوب

ureteritis: /ˌjʊərəˈtaɪtɪs/ التهاب الحالب

myelitis: /ˌmaɪ.əˈlaɪ.tɪs/التهاب النخاع الشوكي 

laryngitis/ˌlær.ɪnˈdʒaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الحنجرة

mastoiditis: /mæs-ˌtɔɪ-ˈdaɪ-təs/ التهاب الخشاء

encephalitis: /ˌen.kef.əˈlaɪ.tɪs/, /enˌsef.əˈlaɪ.t̬əs/ التهاب  الدماغ

pneumonitis: /njuː-mə-ˈnaɪ-təs/ التهاب الرئة

metritis /məˈtrīt-əs/, uteritis: /ˌjuːtəˈraɪtɪs/ التهاب الرحم

tracheitis: /ˌtr-ki:-ˈaɪtəs / التهاب القصبة الهوائية

appendicitis: /əˌpen.dɪˈsaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الزائدة الدودية

meningitis: /ˌmen.ɪnˈdʒaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب السحايا

omphalitis: /ˌæmfə-ˈlaɪt-əs/ التهاب السرة

phalangitis: /ˌfælæn ˈaɪt-əs/ التهاب السلامى

salpingitis: /ˌsælpin ˈdʒaɪt-əs/ التهاب القناة السمعية

colitis: /kəˈlaɪ.təs/ التهاب القولون

hepatitis: /ˌhep.əˈtaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الكبد

nephritis/nɪˈfraɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الكلية

pyorrhea /ˌpaɪə-ˈri:ə / , gingivitis /ˌdʒɪn.dʒɪˈvaɪ.tɪs/: التهاب اللثة

glossitis: /glɒ-ˈsaɪ-təs / التهاب اللسان

uvulitis: /ˌju:vəˈlaɪtɪs/ التهاب اللهاة

tonsillitis: /ˌtɒn.sɪˈlaɪ.təs/ التهاب اللوزتين

ovaritis əʊvə-ˈraɪt-əs/ , oophoritis /ˌəʊfə-ˈraɪt-əs/: التهاب المبيض

cystitis /sɪˈstaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب المثانة

cholecystitis: /kɒlɪsɪ-ˈstaɪ-təs / التهاب المرارة

esophagitis: /ɪˌsɒf.əɡˈaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب المريء

mesenteritis: /ˌmez-ᵊn-tə-ˈrīt-əs/ التهاب المساريقا

placentitis: pləsen-ˈtaɪt-əs/ التهاب المشيمة

gastritis: /ɡæsˈtraɪ.tɪs/ التهاب المعدة

arthritis /ɑːˈθraɪ.tɪs/, rheumatism /ˈruː.mə.tɪ.zəm/ , gout /ɡaʊt/: التهاب المفاصل

conjunctivitis: /kənˌdʒʌŋk.tɪˈvaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الملتحمة

vaginitis /ˌvədʒə ˈnaɪ-təs/, colpitis /kɒl-ˈpaɪt-əs/ : التهاب المهبل

canthitis: /kan-θaɪ´tis/ التهاب الموق

cellulitis: /ˌseljə-ˈlaɪ-təs/ التهاب النسيج الخلوي

aortitis: /eɪˈɔːˈtaɪt-əs/التهاب الوتين أو الأبهر

 phlebitis /flɪ-ˈbaɪtəs / التهاب الوريد


periostitis /ˌper.ɪˈɒs.ˈtaɪ.təs/: التهاب السمحاق

retinitis: /ˌre-tə-ˈnaɪtəs/ التهاب الشبكية

arteritis: /ˌɑːtə-ˈraɪtəs/التهاب الشرايين 

bronchitis /brɒŋˈkaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الشعب

endocarditis: /ˌen.dəʊ.kɑːdˈaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الشغاف

peritonitis /ˌper.ɪ.təˈnaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الصفاق

scleritis: /ˌsklə-ˈraɪt-əs /  التهاب الصلبة

valvulitis: /ˌvæl-vjə-ˈlaɪtəs / التهاب صمام القلب

tympanitis: /ˌtimpəˈnaɪtə̇s / التهاب طبلة الأذن

splenitis: /spli:ˈnaɪt-əs / التهاب الطحال

neuritis /nju:-ˈraɪtəs/, polyneuritis /ˌpɒlɪnju:-ˈraɪtəs/: التهاب الأعصاب

myocarditis: /ˌmaɪ.əʊ.kɑːˈdaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب عضلة القلب

osteitis: /ˌɒstɪ-ˈaɪ-təs / التهاب العظام

duodenitis: /ˌdjuː.əˈdiː.naɪ.tɪs/ التهاب العفج

uveitis: /ˌjuːvɪˈaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب عنبية العين

cervicitis /ˌsɜː.vɪˈsaɪ.təs/ التهاب عنق الرحم

ophthalmia /ˌɒfˈθæl.mɪə/, ophthalmitis /ˌɒfˈθæl.maɪ.tɪs/: التهاب العين

thyroiditis: /ˌθaɪ.rɔɪˈdaɪ.tɪs/ التهاب الغدة الدرقية

hidradenitis: /ˌhɪdrad-ᵊn-ˈaɪt-əs/ التهاب الغدة العرقية

parotitis: /ˌpəˈrɒtˈaɪt-əs/التهاب الغدة النكفية

vulvitis /ˌvʌl.vˈaɪt-əs/ التهاب الفرج

spondylitis: /ˌspɒndə.lˈaɪt-əs/ التهاب الفقريات

stomatitis: /ˌstəʊmə.ˈtaɪtəs/   التهاب الفم

keratitis ker-ə-ˈtaɪtəs/, corneitis /kɔːnɪ ˈaɪt-əs/: التهاب القرنية

iritis /ˌaɪˈraɪt-əs/ التهاب القزحية

carditis /kɑːdˈtaɪtəs/ التهاب القلب

sore throat: التهاب الحلق


flammable, inflammable, fiery: سريع الالتهاب
anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic: مضاد للالتهاب
inflammatroty, phlogistic: التهابي


By Mimoun Zeggai (Ref: Al Mawrid, Baalbaki)















0 commentaires:

Publier un commentaire