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Friday, 18 September 2020

UNIT IX: FUNCTIONS

love.43.gif How to express certainty, uncertainty, probability, and possibility /impossibility:
1adimd8.gif  Certainty#Uncertainty:
 

1adimd8.gif Certainty:

yellowbl.gif be sure to (do)...

yellowbl.gif be bound to (do)...

yellowbl.gif be certain to (do)...

yellowbl.gif It is crystal clear that...

yellowbl.gif I don't doubt that...

yellowbl.gif There is no doubt about...

yellowbl.gif It is impossible that...

yellowbl.gif  must

yellowbl.gif I'm convinced that... 

yellowbl.gif Undoubtedly

yellowbl.gif No one can deny that...
 
     
1adimd8.gif Uncertainty:

yellowbl.gif
 not be sure to (do)...

yellowbl.gif
 not be bound to (do)... (informal)

yellowbl.gif not be certain to (do)...

yellowbl.gif be uncertain to (do)...

yellowbl.gif it's possible

yellowbl.gif it's impossible

yellowbl.gif it might be

yellowbl.gif it might not be

yellowbl.gif it could happen

yellowbl.gif I wouldn't like to say for certain.

yellowbl.gif I'm not sure

yellowbl.gif I doubt it

yellowbl.gif I have my own doubts

yellowbl.gif it's doubtful

yellowbl.gif It's highly / very unlikely

yellowbl.gif I don't think so.

yellowbl.gif I think...  

1adimd8.gif probability:

yellowbl.gif
 It's probable that ...

yellowbl.gif
 Be likely to (do) ...

yellowbl.gif may / might

yellowbl.gif probably

yellowbl.gif maybe perhaps 
 
  
1adimd8.gif improbability

 yellowbl.gif It's not probable that ...

 yellowbl.gif It's improbable that ...

 yellowbl.gif Be unlikely to (do) ...
love.43.gif Examples: Reference to future:

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's certain that she'll visit us next summer.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif She is bound to visit us next summer.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif I'm not sure he will come.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif I'm uncertain I will go on the picnic with them next Sunday.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's probable that he'll pass his exam. He's likely to pass his exam.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's probable that he won't arrive on time.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif He's unlikely to arrive on time.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's possible that it will rain later. It may rain later.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's doubtful that he'll go to the match.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif He might go to the match.
 love.43.gif Examples: Reference to present:

A: Where's John? He isn't in the living-room. 

B: He must be in the bathroom. He can't still be in bed.
A: Is Mr. Smith in his office?
B: It's half past nine, so he should be there.
A: Is the headmaster in the teacher's room?
B: I don't know. He may be there.
A: Are the children still awake?
B: They might be, but I doubt it. They went to bed an hour ago.
love.43.gif Examples: Reference to past:

modal auxiliary+have+past participle:

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifLook at this beautiful handwriting. A six-year-old can't have written this. His father or mother must have helped him.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifThere's no birthday card from Linda. She has got such a terrible memory that she's bound to have forgotten it's birthday.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifA: Why isn't the secretary in her office?
      B: I don't know. She has probably gone to see the manager.
      A: I wonder why James is so late this evening?
      B: He wasn't feeling very well this morning, so he may have gone to the doctor's on his way home from work. 


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