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Friday, 7 December 2018

UNIT III: VOCABULARY



 Vocabulary:

He's got toothache.

She's got a fever.
She's got a flu.
She suffers from flu.



He's got backache.

He's got a headache.
He's got stomach ache.



Blurry eyesight.
She's got a sore throat.

A cardiologist
A dentist
A dermatologist
A gastroenterologist
An ophthalmologist
A psychoanalyst
Meningitisالتهاب السحايا
Nephritis
A skin rash
Tonsilitis
Arthritis

 Noun suffixes:

suffix

examples of nouns

-age

village

dosage 

orphanage

footage

postage

-al

arrival

(bury) burial

(defer=يؤجل) deferral

-ance/-ence

reliance

resistance

governance

dependence (US : dependance)

insistence

defence

-dom

boredom

freedom

(wise) wisdom

kingdom

-ee

employee

interviewee

payee

trainee

-er/-or

teacher

driver

writer

actor

director

-ess

actress

tigress

stewardess

waitress

-hood

brotherhood

childhood

brotherhood 

neighbourhood

-ism

capitalism

Marxism

socialism

tourism

feminism

-ist

capitalist

Marxist

socialist

scientist

feminist

-ity/-ty/-y

brutality

equality

cruelty

safety

anxiety

poverty

recovery

difficulty

-ment

amazement, disappointment

deferment

government

-ness

happiness

kindness

usefulness

fitness

awareness

-ry

entry

ministry

robbery

-ship

friendship

membership

leadership

championship

-sion/-tion/-xion/-ation

expression

pollution

contextualisation

complexion

-cy

accuracy

literacy

dependency

residency


 Adjective suffixes:

Suffix

Examples of adjectives     

-able

-ible

drinkable

portable

flexible 

possible

terrible

-al

natural

brutal

formal

postal

-ial               

financial

residential

(picture; pictorial) industrial

memorial

-en

broken

golden 

wooden

-ful

forgetful 

helpful  unhelpful

useful

-less

homeless

hopeless

useless

helpless= someone who cannot help himself

-ive

active

descriptive

destructive 

communicative

productive

-ly

daily

weekly 

monthly

yearly

-y

wealthy 

healthy 

cloudy

rainy

windy

frosty

snowy

sunny

foggy

misty

-ous

cautious 

famous 

anxious 

nervous 

hazardous

-ic

classic 

Islamic 

touristic 

poetic

-ish

childish

selfish

foolish

-ary

necessary 

secondary 

imaginary 

revolutionary

-ory

explanatory

contradictory 

satisfactory 

compulsory

Suffix

Adjectives of nationality

-ish

Britain           British 

Turkey          Turkish 

Spain            Spanish

Denmark       Danish

Finland          Finnish

Scotland        Scottish

Sweden         Swedish

England         English

-an

Morocco        Moroccan 

America         American 

Angola           Angolan

-ian

Canada         Canadian 

Italy               Italian 

Malaysia       Malaysian 

Peru             Peruvian

-ese

China           Chinese 

Congo          Congolese 

Lebanon       Lebanese 

Benin            Beninese 

Japan            Japanese 

Vietnam        Vietnamese

-i

Iraq               Iraqi 

Pakistan       Pakistani 

Kuwait          Kuwaiti 

Oman           Omani

Qatar            Qatari 

Azerbaijan    Azerbaijani 

Bangladesh  Bangladeshi 

Somalia        Somali 

Yemen         Yemeni


 Verb suffixes:

Suffix

Examples of verbs

-ate

complicate 

dominate 

irritate

-en

harden 

soften 

shorten 

(strong; strengthen) (long; lengthen)

-ify

rectify 

beautify 

clarify 

identify

-ise/-ize

economise 

realise, industrialize (-ise is most common in British English; -ize is most common in American English)


 Adverb suffixes:

Suffix

Examples of adverbs

-ly

calmly 

easily 

quickly

N.B

Adjectives ending in –e, omit (e)+ ly:

possible; possibly

gentle; gently

Exceptions:

sole; solely /ˈsəʊlli/

Irregular adverbs

hard; hard

fast; fast

high; high

good; well

-ward(s)

backwards 

forwards 

downwards 

homeward(s) upwards

-wise

anti-clockwise 

clockwise 

edgewise

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