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Friday, 7 December 2018

UNIT III: VOCABULARY



 Vocabulary:

He's got toothache.

She's got a fever.
She's got a flu.
She suffers from flu.



He's got backache.

He's got a headache.
He's got stomach ache.



Blurry eyesight.
She's got a sore throat.

A cardiologist
A dentist
A dermatologist
A gastroenterologist
An ophthalmologist
A psychoanalyst
Meningitisالتهاب السحايا
Nephritis
A skin rash
Tonsilitis
Arthritis

 Noun suffixes:

suffix
examples of nouns
-age
village
dosage 
orphanage
footage
postage
-al
arrival
(bury) burial
(defer=يؤجل) deferral
-ance/-ence
reliance
resistance
governance
dependence (US : dependance)
insistence
defence
-dom
boredom
freedom
(wise) wisdom
kingdom
-ee
employee
interviewee
payee
trainee
-er/-or
teacher
driver
writer
actor
director
-ess
actress
tigress
stewardess
waitress
-hood
brotherhood
childhood
brotherhood 
neighbourhood
-ism
capitalism
Marxism
socialism
tourism
feminism
-ist
capitalist
Marxist
socialist
scientist
feminist
-ity/-ty/-y
brutality
equality
cruelty
safety
anxiety
poverty
recovery
difficulty
-ment
amazement, disappointment
deferment
government
-ness
happiness
kindness
usefulness
fitness
awareness
-ry
entry
ministry
robbery
-ship
friendship
membership
leadership
championship
-sion/-tion/-xion/-ation
expression
pollution
contextualisation
complexion
-cy
accuracy
literacy
dependency
residency

 Adjective suffixes:

Suffix
Examples of adjectives
-able
-ible
drinkable
portable
flexible 
possible
terrible
-al
natural
brutal
formal
postal
-ial
financial
residential
(picture; pictorial) industrial
memorial
-en
broken
golden 
wooden
-ful
forgetful 
helpful unhelpful
useful
-less
homeless
hopeless
useless
helpless= someone who cannot help himself
-ive
active
descriptive
destructive 
communicative
productive
-ly
daily
weekly 
monthly
yearly
-y
wealthy 
healthy 
cloudy
rainy
windy
frosty
snowy
sunny
foggy
misty
-ous
cautious 
famous 
anxious 
nervous 
hazardous
-ic
classic 
Islamic 
touristic 
poetic
-an
Moroccan 
American 
Angolan
-ish
childish
selfish
foolish
-ary
necessary 
secondary 
imaginary 
revolutionary
-ory
explanatory
contradictory 
satisfactory 
compulsory

Adjectives of nationality
-ish
British 
Turkish 
Spanish
Danish
Finnish
Scottish
Swedish
English
-ian
Canadian 
Italian 
Malaysian 
Peruvian
-ese
Chinese 
Congolese 
Lebanese 
Beninese 
Japanese 
Vietnamese
-i
Iraqi, Pakistani 
Kuwaiti 
Omani
Qatari 
Azerbaijani 
Bangladeshi 
Somali 
Yemeni


Adjectives of nationality (Exceptions)
France
French
Wales
Welsh
Madagascar
Malagasy
Monaco
Monégasque
Afghanistan
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
Afghan
Kazakh
Kyrgyz
Tajik
Uzbek
Burkina Faso
Burkinabe
Burundi
Burundi
Cyprus
Cypriot
Germany
German
Greece
Greek
Greenland
Iceland
Greenlandic
Icelandic
Holland/the Netherlands
Dutch
Lesotho
Sotho
Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
New Zealand
New Zealand
Niger
Nigerien
The Pacific
Pacific
The Philippines
Philippine
Quebec
Quebecois
Saudi Arabia
Saudi
Slovakia
Slovak
Swaziland
Swazi
Switzerland
Swiss
Thailand
Thai
Yugoslavia
Yugoslav

 Verb suffixes:

Suffix
Examples of verbs
-ate
complicate 
dominate 
irritate
-en
harden 
soften 
shorten 
(strong; strengthen) (long; lengthen)
-ify
rectify 
beautify 
clarify 
identify
-ise/-ize
economise 
realise, industrialize (-ise is most common in British English; -ize is most common in American English)

 Adverbs suffixes:

Suffix
Examples of adverbs
-ly
calmly 
easily 
quickly
N.B
Adjectives ending in –e, omit (e)+ ly:
possible; possibly
gentle; gently
Exceptions:
sole; solely /ˈsəʊlli/
Irregular adverbs
hard; hard
fast; fast
high; high
good; well
-ward(s)
backwards 
forwards 
downwards 
homeward(s) upwards
-wise
anti-clockwise 
clockwise 
edgewise

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