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vendredi 18 septembre 2020

UNIT IX: FUNCTIONS


love.43.gif How to express certainty, uncertainty, probability and possibility /impossibility:
1adimd8.gif Certainty#Uncertainty:
 

1adimd8.gifCertainty:

yellowbl.gifbe sure to (do)...
yellowbl.gif be bound to (do)...
yellowbl.gif be certain to (do)...
yellowbl.gif It is crystal clear that...
yellowbl.gif I don't doubt that...
yellowbl.gif There is no doubt about...
yellowbl.gif It is impossible that...
yellowbl.gif  must
yellowbl.gif I'm convinced that... 
yellowbl.gif Undoubtedly
yellowbl.gif Noone can deny that...
 
     
1adimd8.gifUncertainty:
yellowbl.gif not be sure to (do)...
yellowbl.gif not be bound to (do)... (informal)
yellowbl.gif not be certain to (do)...
yellowbl.gif be uncertain to (do)...
yellowbl.gif it's possible
yellowbl.gif it's impossible
yellowbl.gif it might be
yellowbl.gif it might not be
yellowbl.gif it could happen
yellowbl.gif I wouldn't like to say for certain.
yellowbl.gif I'm not sure
yellowbl.gif I doubt it
yellowbl.gif I have my own doubts
yellowbl.gif it's doubtful
yellowbl.gif It's highly / very unlikely

yellowbl.gif I don't think so.
yellowbl.gif I think...  

1adimd8.gif probability:
yellowbl.gif It's probable that ...
yellowbl.gif Be likely to (do) ...
yellowbl.gif may / might

yellowbl.gif probably
yellowbl.gif maybe perhaps 
   
1adimd8.gif improbability: 
 yellowbl.gif It's not probable that ...
 yellowbl.gif It's improbable that ...
 yellowbl.gif Be unlikely to (do) ...

love.43.gif Examples: Reference to future:
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's certain that she'll visit us next summer.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif She is bound to visit us next summer.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif I'm not sure he will come.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif I'm uncertain I will go on the picnic with them next Sunday.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's probable that he'll pass his exam.He's likely to pass his exam.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's probable that he won't arrive on time.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif He's unlikely to arrive on time.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's possible that it will rain later.It may rain later.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif It's doubtful that he'll go to the match.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif He might go to the match.
 love.43.gif Examples: Reference to present:

A: Where's John? He isn't in the living-room. 

B: He must be in the bathroom. He can't still be in bed.
A: Is Mr. Smith in his office?
B: It's half past nine, so he should be there.
A: Is the headmaster in the teacheer's room?
B: I don't know. He may be there.
A: Are the children still awake?
B: They might be, but I doubt it. They went to bed an hour ago.
love.43.gif Examples: Reference to past:

modal auxiliary+have+past participle

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifLook at this beautiful handwriting. A six-year-old can't have written this. His father or mother must have helped him.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifThere's no birthday card from Linda. She has got such a terrible memory that she's bound to have forgotten it's birthday.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifA:Why isn't the secretary in her office?
     B: I don't know. She has probably gone to see the manager.
     A: I wonder why James is so late this evening?
     B: He wasn't feeling very well this morning, so he may have gone to the doctor's on his his way home from work. 

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