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mardi 8 septembre 2020

UNIT III: STUDY GRAMMAR

 love.43.gifPAST PERFECT SIMPLE:

fleche-gif-038.gifForm:
ani10.gifAffirmative: Subject+had+past participle
ani10.gifNegative: Subject+had+not+past participle/ Hadn’t+past participle
ani10.gifInterrogative: Had+subject+past participle…?
If the verb is regular, the past participle is then: v+(e)d. But if the verb is irregular then check the following link: irregular verbs.

Examples:

Positive
Negative
Question
  • had brushed.
  • You had brushed.
  • We had brushed.
  • They had brushed.
  • He had brushed.
  • She had brushed.
  • It had brushed.
  • had not brushed.
  • You had not brushed.
  • We had not brushed.
  • They had not brushed.
  • He had not brushed.
  • She had not brushed.
  • It had not brushed.
  • Had I brushed?
  • Had you brushed?
  • Had we brushed?
  • Had they brushed?
  • Had he brushed?
  • Had she brushed?
  • Had it brushed?

fleche-gif-038.gifUses:
fleche-gif-047.gifFor activities which began in the past and continued to another moment in the past, with: for/since/How long…?

Reference of the time diagram: link
Examples:
We met Ahmed last week. We hadn’t seen him since 1980.
I received a letter from my cousin yesterday. I hadn’t heard from him for ages.
Hong long had they had that car when they had that terrible accident?
They had been married for three years when they divorced.

fleche-gif-047.gifFor an acitivity which happened before another one in the past:
Reference of the time diagram: link
With the following words and phrases, usually associated with the simple past tense: just/ever/never/before/already/until/after/as soon as
Examples:
I was introduced to Jamal two weeks ago. I had never met him before.
The train had already left when we got to the railway station.
He went to bed as soon as he had finished his homework.
Yesterday, before she went to work, she had swept the floor.
Yesterday, after she had swept the floor, she went to work.
I didn’t say anything until she had finished talking.
By the time the police arrived, the two men had disappeared.
Had you cleaned up the mess by the time they came home?
fleche-gif-047.gifTo express the previous cause of a past state:
Examples:
He was unconscious. Somebody had attacked him.
There was no milk left. The children had drunk it all.
fleche-gif-047.gifWith the expression: It was the first/second/...time (that)...
Example:
It was the first time she had been abroad.
fleche-gif-047.gifWith the superlative form of an adverb or adjective+ever:
Examples:
It was the best mark he had ever had.
They were the most beautiful roses I had ever seen.
fleche-gif-047.gifIn conditional type III: If+ past perfect+ would have+ past participle
Examples:
If he had had a car, he would have driven to Agadir last summer.
They wouldn’t have come if they hadn’t been invited. (Here we have the  passive voice; that is why we add the past participle of “be”+p.p. of the verb: had+been+p.p.)
fleche-gif-047.gifWith expression of regrets: wish/if only:
Examples:
I feel awful this morning. I wish I had gone to bed earlier yesterday.
He had a terrible accident last Saturday. If only he hadn’t driven so fast.
When reporting in the past, the simple past or the present perfect may change to the past perfect simple:
Examples:
“I’ve done my homework,” he said.
He said (that) he had done his homework.
“Did you go to the dentist’s last week?” they asked me.
They asked me if I had gone to the dentist’s the previous week.
Link: http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-past-perfect.php

love.43.gif
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
fleche-gif-038.gifForm:
ani10.gifAffirmative:Subject+had+been+v+ing
ani10.gifNegative: Subject+had+not+been+v+ing/ Hadn’t+been+v+ing
ani10.gifInterrogative: Had+subject+been+v+ing…?
fleche-gif-038.gifUses:
fleche-gif-047.gif  For an activity which began in the past and continued until another moment in the past, with: for/since/how long…?
Examples:
They had been playing for ten minutes when we got to the station an hour ago.
Yesterday, the children had been watching TV for more than two hours when they mother came back home.
fleche-gif-047.gif  To explain the previous cause of a past state.
Examples:
He had been working all day yesterday, so he was tired.
He was tired because he had been working all day yesterday.
The boys were hot this morning. They had been playing football (for two hours).
The boys were hot this morning because they had been playing football (for two hours).

fleche-gif-047.gif  For short activities repeated regularly between points of time in the past.
Example:
He had been having driving lessons for two months when he had an accident.
fleche-gif-047.gif  When reporting in the past, the past continuous and the present perfect continuous may change to the past perfect continuous:
Examples:
“We’ve been learning English for five years.” They said.
They told us (that) they had been learning English for five years.
“I was looking for you.” she said.                  
She said (that) she had been looking for me.
MR ZEGGAI MIMOUN GOOD LUCK



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