Formal education/learning: learning typically provided by an education or training institution, structured (in terms of objectives, learning time, or learning support) and leading to certification. Formal learning is intentional from the learners’ perspective.

 Non-formal education/learning: learning that is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. It is, however, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time, or learning support). Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective.

 Informal education/learning: learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family, or leisure. It is not structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time, or learning support) and typically does not lead to certification. Informal learning may be intentional but in most cases, it is non-intentional (or incidental/ random).

 Vocational education (education based on occupation or employment), also known as career and technical education (CTE) or technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts, and careers at various levels from a trade, a craft, technician, or a high professional practitioner position in engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, pharmacy, law, etc.

 Special education or special needs education: is the practice of educating students with special needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.

 Inclusive education: is education that addresses the learning needs of children, youth, and adults- especially those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion.

 Gifted education: refers to specialized educational strategies geared to meet the needs of students who have performed higher than average on certain standardized tests.

 Basic education: refers to the whole range of educational activities taking place in various settings (formal, non-formal, and informal), that aim to meet basic learning needs. According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises primary education (first stage of basic education) and lower secondary education (second stage). In countries (developing countries in particular), Basic Education often includes also pre-primary education and/or adult literacy programs.

 Boarding school: the school where some or all students and live away from their home and family.

 Literacy: is the condition or quality of being literate, especially the ability to read and write. In modern context, a literate person is someone who can use a personal computer too.
 Critical thinking: logical thinking that draws conclusions from facts and evidence.

 Portfolio: the collection of student work (such as written assignments, drafts, artwork, exemplary work, or the students’ development progress.

 Problem solving: The process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. Problem-solving may include mathematical or systematic operations and can be a gauge of an individual's critical thinking skills.

 Dropouts: students who left school without completing basic education. Or a student who withdraws before completing a course of instruction.

 Compulsory: obligatory.

 Skill: an ability, usually learned, to perform actions.

 Note-taking: writing pieces of information related to study, in an informal or unstructured manner.

 E-learning: Learning conducted via electronic media, typically on the Internet.

 Distance learning: a system of education in which people study with the help of special Internet sites and television and radio programmes, and send or email work to their teachers.

 Brainstorming: a group problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous contribution of ideas from all members of the group. Or: Process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive and freewheeling group discussion. Every participant is encouraged to think aloud and suggest as many ideas as possible, no matter seemingly how outlandish or bizarre.

 Active learning: students learn by doing things, rather than sitting at their tables reading, doing exercises, or listening to a teacher, inside or outside school.

 Universal values: honesty, integrity, tolerance and other values believed to be common to all the world’s cultures.

 Cooperative learning: Cooperative learning is a teaching method where students of mixed levels of ability are arranged into groups, and rewarded according to the group's success, not the success of an individual member.

 Partnership: a relation in which two or more people, organisations, or countries work together as partners.

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