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Thursday, 3 September 2020

UNIT I: STUDY GRAMMAR



STUDY GRAMMAR: Gerund or Infinitive:

 Verbs that can be followed by a gerund (ex: doing)

1- After verbs that express likes/dislikes :
  enjoy
  dislike
  don't mind

 Examples:


"I dislike listening to jazz."
"I don’t mind sitting here."
"I enjoy listening to classical music."

2- After certain other verbs, such as :

admit
avoid
advise
deny
delay
understand
finish
fancy
go
(in go swimming)
keep
mind
imagine
keep (on)
miss
postpone
practise
suggest
risk
to be used to

 Examples:

" I suggest going to the theatre."
"They knew they risked being arrested.”
We’ve been advised not to risk travelling in these conditions."
"She narrowly missed hitting him."
Practise reversing the car into the garage.” (reverse= move backward.)
"I am not used to eating so much at lunchtime."

3- After prepositions :

interested in ...
instead of ...
good at ...
before ...
after
be accused of...

 Examples:

"I am interested in collecting stamps."
"After playing football, I drank orange juice".
" He was accused of smuggling." (smuggle=move (goods) illegally into or out of a country. : "He's been smuggling cigarettes from Gibraltar into Spain.")

4- After certain expressions:

it's no use ...
it's no good ...
there's no point in ...
I can't help...

 Examples:

" It's no use convincing him to revise his lessons. He's so stubborn."
“He can’t help being ugly.”

 Verbs that can be followed by an infinitive ( ex: to do)

1- After verbs that refer to a future event:

want 
hope
aim
intend
attempt
promise
be determined
plan
decide
determine
endeavour: attempt
expect
offer
proceed
threaten
swear
volunteer
would like
would hate
would love
would prefer

 Examples:

"I want to finish my work early."
"I will endeavour to do my best for my country."
"The hijackers threatened to kill one passenger every hour if their demands were not met."

2- After certain other verbs, such as:

afford
agree
choose
fail
happen
refuse
manage
need
seem
learn
choose
pretend
used to

 Examples:

"She refused to forgive him."
“"used to live in London. Now he lives in Manchester."

3- After adjectives :

glad
pleased
disappointed

 Examples:

"I'm glad to know that you passed the exam."
"I'm pleased to meet you."
"I'm disappointed to hear that you flunked Maths."

4- After "too" & "enough":

too difficult
easy enough

 Examples:

"It's too difficult to convince him to be helpful."
" But it's easy enough to fool him to get what you want."

 Verbs that can be followed by both an infinitive without “to":

let
help (infinitive with “to” or infinitive without “to”)
let’s

model auxiliaries such as: can- could- will- would- shall- should- must- may- might
have tohad to- had better;except ought , it is followed by “to”, example: "He ought to see a doctor."

 Verbs that can be followed either by gerund or infinitive without change in meaning:

continue
start
begin
like
love
hate
can't stand
can’t bear
cease
neglect
prefer
propose
recommend

 Examples:

"The plumber recommended buying a new water heater."
"The plumber recommended me to buy a new water heater." (I was recommended to buy a new water heater.)
"Two days later, the screen ceased to function."
"They ceased fighting when the commander was killed."
"I started writing poems when I was young."
"I started to write poems when I was young."
"He can't bear being alone."
"He can't bear to be alone."

 Verbs that can be followed either by gerund or infinitive with change in meaning:

stop "I want to stop to have some lunch." (I’m going to have lunch when I stop.) stop an action to begin another. / "I want to stop having lunch." (I don’t want to eat lunch from now.) stop an action altogether.

remember "I remember seeing Jane at the post office." (I saw her before this moment.) / "I must remember to see Mr. Smith at the bank." (I must see him after this moment.)

forget "Delia forgot talking to the manager." (She talked to him before that moment.) / "Delia forgot to talk to the manager." (She didn’t talk to him after that moment.)

try "We tried eating soya mince." (We tasted soya mince for the first time.) / "We tried to eat soya mince." (We attempted to eat soya mince.)

 For further information check the link below:

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