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jeudi 3 septembre 2020

UNIT I: STUDY GRAMMAR

 love.43.gifSTUDY GRAMMAR: Gerund or Infinitive:

  • Verbs that can be followed by a gerund (ex: doing)

1- After verbs that express likes/dislikes :

  • enjoy
  • dislike
  • don't mind
Example:
" I dislike listening to jazz."
“I don’t mind sitting here.”
I enjoy listening to classical music.”

2- After certain other verbs,  such as :

  • admit
  • appreciate
  • avoid
  • advise
  • consider
  • deny
  • delay
  • understand
  • finish
  • fancy
  • go (in go swimming)
  • involve
  • keep
  • mention
  • mind
  • waste time/money
  • imagine
  • involve
  • keep (on)
  • mention
  • miss
  • postpone
  • practice
  • suggest
  • resist
  • reject
  • risk
  • to be used to
Examples:
" I suggest going to the theatre."
“The bank strongly resisted cutting interest rates.”
“They knew they risked being arrested.”
We’ve been advised not to risk travelling in these conditions.”
“She narrowly missed hitting him.”
“Practise reversing the car into the garage.” (reverse= move backward.)
“I am not used to eating so much at lunchtime.”

3- After prepositions :  

  • interested in ...    
  • instead of ...
  • good at ...
  • before ...
  • after …
  • be accused of...
Examples:
"I am interested in collecting stamps."
"After playing football, I drank an orange juice".
" He was accused of smuggling." (smuggle=move (goods) illegally into or out of a country. : "He's been smuggling cigarettes from Gibraltar into Spain.")

4- After certain expressions :

it's no use ...
it's no good ...
there's no point in ...
I can't help...
Examples:
" It's no use convincing him to revise his lessons. He's so stubborn."
“He can’t help being ugly.”


  • Verbs that can be followed by an infinitive ( ex : to do)

1- After verbs that  refer to a future event:

  • want
  • hope
  • aim
  • intend
  • arrange
  • attempt
  • promise
  • be determined
  • plan
  • consent
  • decide
  • demand
  • deserve
  • determine
  • endeavor
  • expect
  • offer
  • proceed
  • promise
  • threaten
  • swear
  • volunteer
  • want
  • would like
  • would hate
  • would love
  • would prefer
Examples:
" I want to finish my work early.
“I will endeavour to do my best for my country.”
“The hijackers threatened to kill one passenger every hour if their demands were not met.”

2- After certain other verbs, such as:

  • afford
  • agree
  • help
  • choose
  • fail
  • happen
  • refuse
  • manage
  • need
  • seem
  • learn
  • choose
  • pretend
  • used to
Examples:
"She refused to forgive him."
“He used to live in London. Now he lives in Manchester.”

3- After adjectives :  

  • glad
  • pleased
  • disappointed
Examples:
"I'm glad to know that you passed the exam."
"I'm pleased to meet you."
"I'm disappointed to hear that you flunked Maths."

4- After "too" & "enough":

too difficult
easy enough
Examples:
"It's too difficult to convince him to be helpful."
" But it's easy enough to fool him to get what you want."
  • Verbs that can be followed by both an infinitive without “to”:
  • let
  • help (infinitive with “to” or infinitive without “to”)
  • let’s
  • model auxiliaries such as: can- could- will- would- shall- should- must- have to- had to- may- might- had better except "ought" it is followed by “to”, example: He ought to see a doctor.
  • Verbs that can be followed either by gerund or infinitive without change in meaning:
  • continue
  • start
  • begin
  • like
  • love
  • hate
  • cant’t stand
  • can’t bear
  • cease
  • neglect
  • prefer
  • propose
  • recommend
Examples:
“The plumber recommended buying a new water heater.”
“The plumber recommended me to buy a new water heater.” (I was recommended to buy a new water heater.)
“Two days later, the screen ceased to function.”
“They ceased fighting when the commander was killed.”
"I started writing poems when I was young."
"I started to write poems when I was young."
“He can't bear being alone.”
“He can't bear to be alone.”


  • Verbs that can be followed either by gerund or infinitive with change in meaning:

  • stop “I want to stop to have some lunch.” (I’m going to have lunch when I stop.) stop an action to begin another. / “I want to stop having lunch.” (I don’t want to eat lunch from now.) stop an action altogether.
  • remember “I remember seeing Jane at the post office.” (I saw her before this moment.) / “I must remember to see Mr Smith at the bank.” (I must see him after this moment.)
  • forget “Delia forgot talking to the manager.” (She talked to him before that moment.) / “Delia forgot to talk to the manager.” (She didn’t talk to him after that moment.)
  • try “We tried eating soya mince.” (We tasted soya mince for the first time.) / “We tried to eat soya mince.” (We attempted to eat soya mince.)

The information has been taken from the link below:



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