jeudi 21 novembre 2019




Relative pronouns:

For persons
For things
Whose/of which

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif Use for persons: who or that. Who is normally used as a subject.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man who lives next door is very kind.
That is much less usual than who as a subject except after superlatives and after: all, nobody, no one, someone, somebody, anybody, etc., when either who or that can be used:
webmaster_fleches029d.gifAll who / that were in the meeting felt satisfied with the final statement.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif As an object: whom, who or that are used, but only whom is considered very formal and seldom used in spoken English. Instead we use who or that .It is still more common to omit the relative pronoun all together.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man whom I saw was called Mr. Johnson. webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man who I saw was called Mr. Johnson. webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man that I saw was called Mr. Johnson.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man I saw was called Mr. Johnson. (relative pronoun omitted)
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif With a preposition: whom or that. It is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause but it is still more common to omit the relative altogether.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man who I bought it from told me to oil it.  
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe man from whom I bought it told me to oil it.  
webmaster_fleches029d.gifKarim who I travelled with to Agadir is my best friend.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifKarim with whom I travelled to Agadir is my best friend.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif Possessive: whose is the only possible form:
webmaster_fleches029d.gifAhmed whose father is an engineer is always top of our class.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif Use for things:
Subject: which or that.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThis is the picture which / that caused such a admiration.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe cat which/that is on the sofa is sleeping.
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif Object: which or that or no relative at all.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe car which / that I hired broke down yesterday. webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe car I hired broke down yesterday.*
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif Which is hardly ever used after all, much, little, everything, none, no and compounds of no, or after superlatives. Instead we use that, or omit the relative altogether, if it is a Direct Object.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifAll the apples that fall of the tree in our garden are eaten by sheep.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThis is the best hotel (that) I know.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif With a preposition: which or that or no relative (the same as for persons).
webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gif The relative pronoun what. What: the thing that / the things that, etc.
webmaster_fleches029d.gifThe things that we saw astonished us = What we saw astonished us.

webmaster-mini-puces-00022.gifRelative pronouns: when, where and why: In informal language, we often use where, when or why to introduce defining relative clauses instead of at which, on which or for which.

I know a restaurant where the food is excellent.
(… a restaurant at which the food is excellent)
There isn’t a day when I am not as busy as a bee.
(… a day on which I am not as busy as a bee.)
Do you know the reason why the flights are cancelled today?
(… the reason for which  the flights are cancelled today?)

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