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lundi 7 janvier 2019

UNIT III: GRAMMAR ANALYSIS



  


Grammar Analysis: Present Perfect Simple & Continuous


Form: Present Perfect Simple: Subject+have/ (he-she-it) has+past participle 



Present Perfect Continuous: Subject+have/ (he-she-it) has+been+verb+ing 





 


Use of the Present Perfect: :

When the time is not mentioned: 


I have cleaned my room.

    (When? we do not know.) 

He has gone to Istanbul.

    (When? we do not know.) 

Recently completed actions: (just


He has just played handball. 


She has just drunk a glass of water. 


When the time period has not finished: (this+period of time) 

I have read three books this month. (This month has not finished yet) (But when it finishes, we use the simple past) 

It is 10:30 a.m. She has written two emails this morning. (But: It is 12:25 p.m. She wrote two emails this morning. Past Simple) 

When an action starts in the past and is still continuing in the present, mostly with since (point of time) or for (period of time):





They have lived in Canada since 1986.

    (They 
have lived in Canada for 32 years.) 

They have been living in Canada since 1986.

    (They 
have been living in Canada for 32 years.)

N.B.: With “for”, if the action is finished, then we use the simple past:

He taught English in Fes for 6 years before moving to Rabat. (Now he teaches English in Rabat, not Fes) 



With the expressions “lately”= “recently”: 


I have been to London recently


Have you been doing any exercises lately


With the expressions “yet” (negative & interrogative) & “already” (affirmative): 


A: Have you done your homework yet?
    

    B: Yes, I have already done it.
           No, not yet. /No, I haven’t done it yet

With ever (?) & never (negative): 


A: Has he ever visited Spain?
    B: No, he has never visited it. 



With the superlative: It is the+superlative+present perfect (ever



It is the most delicious cake I have ever eaten



It is the most important monument she has ever seen



With other time expressions: (so far, up to now= until now, since then)


They have visited several countries so far



They moved to Oujda in 2015. They have been living there since then.





  


Grammar Analysis: Modal Auxiliaries


Modal
Example
Uses
Can
They can control their own budgets.
We can’t fix it.
Can I smoke here? (Can=May)
Can you help me?
Ability / Possibility
Inability
Asking for permission
Request
Can’t
He can’t swim.
This restaurant can’t be a good one. It’s always empty.
Inability
Impossibility
Could
Could I borrow your dictionary?
Could you say it again more slowly? (polite)
We could try to fix it ourselves.
I think we could have another Gulf War.
He gave up his old job so he could work for us.
Asking for permission.
Request
Suggestion
Future possibility
Ability in the past
May
May I have another cup of coffee? (May=Can)
China may become a major economic power.
Asking for permission

Future possibility
Might
We'd better phone tomorrow; they might be eating their dinner now.
They might give us a 10% discount.
Present possibility

Future possibility
Must
We must say good-bye now.
This restaurant must be a good one. It’s always full.
Necessity / Obligation
Certainty
Mustn’t
They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.
Prohibition
Have to
John can’t come because he has to work tomorrow.
Obligation
Shall
(More common in the UK than the US)
Shall I help you with your luggage?
Shall we say 2.30 then?
Shall I do that or will you?
Offer
Suggestion
Asking what to do
Will
I can’t see any taxis so I’ll (will) walk.
I'll (will) do that for you if you like.
I’ll (will) get back to you first thing on Monday.
Profits will increase next year.
Instant decisions
Offer
Promise

Certain prediction
Would
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?
Would you pass the salt please?
Would you mind waiting a moment?
"Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be fine."
Would you like to play golf this Friday?
"Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like tea please."
Asking for permission
Request
Request
Making arrangements
Invitation
Preferences
Needn’t=don’t have to
You needn't shout. It's a good line. I can hear you perfectly.
Lack of obligation

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