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mercredi 24 octobre 2018

UNIT I: GRAMMAR ANALYSIS






Simple Past:

 To be:

 Affirmative: 

I/He/She was
You/We/They were

Examples: 

Yesterday morning I/he/she was at school/tired/happy.
Last week it was hot.
Two days ago you/we/they were late/on holiday/at home.



 Nagative: was/were not


Examples: 

Yesterday he was not (wasn’t) at school.
There was not any sugar.
There were not (weren't)  any boys in the garden yesterday morning.

 Interrogative: 

Inversion of subject verb: (to be + subject...?= was/were+subject...?)

Examples: 

Where was he last night?
Was it hot last August?
Were Ahmed and Ali absent yesterday?

 To have:

 Affirmative: Subject + had


Examples: 


had a terrible nightmare yesterday.
They had a good time in the pool last week.
You also had some work to do yesterday.

 Nagative: did+not+have (infinitive)

Examples: 

We didn't have any money.
We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.


 Interrogative: Did+subject+have(infinitive)...?

Examples: 

Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
Did she have a headache yesterday?

 Regular Verbs:

 Affirmative: Subject+verb+ed/d

Examples: 

John Cabot sailed to America in 1498. (to sail)
My father died last year. (to die)
He lived in Fiji in 1976. (to live)
We crossed the Channel yesterday. (to cross)

 Nagative: did+not (didn't) +have (infinitive)

Examples: 
We didn't do our exercises this morning.
Last week we did not visit our grandparents.
They didn't travel to Paris last holiday.

 Interrogative: 

Yes/No question: Did+subject+verb (infinitive)...?

Examples: 

Did you watch that movie last week?
Did he call you yesterday?
Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Wh questions: Question word+did+Did+subject+verb (infinitive)...?

Examples: 

When did you watch that movie?
Why did you travel to Rabat last week?
Where did he travel two days ago?

 Pronunciation of -ed: /d/, /t/, /ıd/

 Verbs ending in /d/ or /t/ -ed is pronounced /ıd/

Examples: 

need
needed
/ni:dıd/
add
added
/ædıd/
want
wanted
/wαntıd/
visit

visited           
/vısıtıd/

 Verbs ending in /t/, /k/, /p/, /f/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /s/, /ks/ -ed is pronounced /t/
/ʃ/=ش

Examples: 

pass

passed

/pɑːst/
fix
fixed

/fıkst/

finish
finished
/ fınıʃt/ 
watch
watched
/wαtʃt/
cough
coughed

/kαft/
puff
puffed
/pʌft/
stop

stopped

/stɒpt /
help
helped

/helpt /
walk
walked
/wɑːkt/
look
looked
/lʊkt/


Apart from the letters mentioned above -ed is pronounced /d/

Examples: 


clean

cleaned

/kli:nd/
judge
judged
/dʒʌdʒd/
travel

travelled

/trævld/
play
played
/pld/
enjoy
enjoyed
/endʒɔɪd/
copy
copied
/kɒpɪd/
study
studied
/stʌdıd/

 Spelling rules:


1v+1c= 2 consonants: 
         stop  stopped  drop   dropped      ban    banned
         Exceptions don't double if the verb finishes with an "x", "y" or "w":
 
fix
fixed 
mix
mixed 
play
played
stay
stayed
bow
bowed 
         
1v+2cs= no change: 
         
help
helped   
walk
walked
         Exceptions:

         dial     dialled

2vs+1c= no change:   
look    looked   heat    heated  

1v+y+ ed         played

1c+y change y into i+ed        study    studied


If the verb finishes with a "c", past simple is "ck":

         
panicpanicked
picnicpicnicked

 If stress is on the last syllable, double the consonant :

to re'fer      
 referred 
to pre'fer    
 preferred 
to oc'cur     
 occurred   
to e'mit      
 emitted   
       
 If stress is on the first syllable, there is no doubling :

to open    
 opened 
to 'open    
 opened 
to 'listen
 listened   
to 'happen  
 happened   

Exceptions:

to 'travel      
 travelled 
to 'label      
 labelled  
to 'worship
 worshipped  
to 'kidnap  
 kidnapped   


 Adverbials used with the past simple:

 yesterday

 Last+...

 ...+ago

 The day before yesterday= two days before

 Any time expression that refers to a date before now requires a past tense.

Examples: 

in 1998
on June 21st (if this date was before now)
on June 21st, 2000
during 1995
in the 19th Century
last Christmas, etc.












 References:




 http://www.eslcafe.com/grammar/simple_past_tense02.html



 http://www.profdanglais.com/verbes-irreguliers-anglais/liste-des-verbes-pdf.php?Niv=nc&Perso=nc


 https://sites.google.com/site/thesimplepast1/time-adverbial-phrases



 Irregular Verbs:



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